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27 April, 2010

Use Principle of "Acclimatization" in Each Technical Cultivation Treatment

The concept of acclimatization in a shrimp cultivation is usually known when fry stocking (related explanation can be seen here. In this discussion will describe how the principles of acclimatization were used for each shrimp cultivation technical treatment not only on fry stocking but also covers entire process of cultivation in one period.

The principle of "acclimatization" as used in this discussion is the process of complying with two different conditions (environment, food and other conditions) from a condition toa new condition so that changes in these conditions does not cause stress for shrimps. This activity needs to be conducted carefully and patiently so that stress levels of shrimp to changes in condition can be minimized so that quality and condition of shrimp can be maintained optimally.

The rationale underlying a necessity of the "acclimatization" principle in each technical treatment of shrimp culture is shrimp sensitivity. When compared with their natural environment then then within the pond waters which is an artificial habitat, shrimp is very sensitive to changes in the environment either due to natural factors (changing seasons, weather, water), or because of used technical treatment factors.

In a cultivation period, shrimp growth so that given technical treatment also should adjust to shrimp needs level based on age and size of shrimps at that time. Changes that occur in accordance with the time causing a critical point where the shrimp "move" from a condition to other conditions that are better suited to the level of needs.

Shrimp “moving” process from a condition to other conditions indirectly need technical adjustments to treatment can guarantee that the shrimps does not becoming stress at that time. Mainly, shrimp culture technical treatment associated with the principle of "acclimatization" are among others:
  1. Management of water quality (description associated with the management of water quality has been discussed previously), which includes: (i) water transparency, (ii) the color of pond water, (iii) the physical condition of pond water, and (iv) the condition of pond bottom. Some methods commonly used in water quality management of among others: water circulation; water fertilization; water inoculation. In the principle of "acclimatization" used methods in the management of water quality do not result in waters ecosystem balance is disrupted so that it can cause a new problem more complex.

    However, water quality management activities basically are a program that directs activity at balance of waters ecosystem within limited a map of pond in order to create a pond waters conditions that resemble with natural habitat of the shrimps in terms of nature, as well as ecological behavior.

    Example: At the time of the first month phase, water repalcement is likely to lead to the filling of water into the pond with a little throw water pond (this is to establish the stability of pond water with a relatively high waters transparency and prepare for next month phase the waters transparency already formed). At a time the shrimps had entered the second month phase (or adjust the level of need) there are times where there is a transition change in the pattern of water replacement from the previous phase to the next phase. At a time of this transition is not recommended to apply the change in the pattern of water changing drastically, because it would "shocking" the stability of pond water that it can trigger a stress on the shrimp. Perform the two patterns of water replacement gradually until the lead at one point where new waters replacement pattern can be implemented fully.

  2. Feeding program. During a process of growth, the shrimp needs to feed also will experience changes both in number and size of feed to be consumed. This discussion will be focused on the process of adjusting the size of shrimp feed on needs level (discussion related to the feeding program has been described previously). Normally, the size of the shrimp feed consumed will increase in size during the growth process, or in other words more bigger the shrimps, size of consumed feed is the greater too (note: this condition does not apply to shrimp that grow abnormally).

    When there are changes size of feed consumed by shrimp is a critical time in the feeding program. At this transitional period should be avoided in the feed with a larger feed sizes directly, because it can make the shrimp would be "surprised" to given feed changes . This condition can cause the shrimp to consume little feed that has been given and in extreme conditions shrimps does not consume to feed for several days.

    In the above conditions, the feed of two different sizes should be mixed in advance with the initial composition of the feed with a smaller size amount more than the larger feed. Perform this mixing for several days with the feed composition leads to a larger size more than smaller size and in the end there are movement of feed size larger fully.
Both the technical treatment like mentioned above (water quality management and feeding programs) is an illustration of the importance of the "acclimatization" principle application in every shrimp culture technical treatment. Acclimatization of the actual principle is used in the process of fry stocking, apparently logical approach also can be used in technical treatments during a cultivation period.

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