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18 July, 2008

Pond Waters Fertilization 2 – Types and Methods

Mainly, in shrimp farming activities, a types of fertilizer that can be used can be classified into two categories, namely: (i) inorganic fertilizer, and (ii) organic fertilizer. Kind of inorganic fertilizer which is used in aquaculture is urea (NH2 CONH2) and TSP (Ca (H2PO4)), while the commonly used organic fertilizers are saponin fermentation and feed damaged fermentation.



A function and doses used of each type of fertilizer is relatively different depending on waters condition and its need level based on field observations.

Visually, urea is recognizable by its shape that is in the form of fine crystal grains with white color and when mixed with water will feel cold (one of the properties of this fertilizer is very easy to absorb water). Urea fertilizer is one of chemical fertilizers containing high grade nitrogen (N). Urea is used to stimulate or grow the phytoplanktoni which is stable in the pond.

One other type of chemical fertilizer is TSP (Triple Super Phosphate), which is called as SP-36 fertilizer and with gray brown color. In shrimp culture, a type of fertilizer can be used to grow phytoplankton that its can spur growth of zooplankton that can be serve as natural feed for small shrimp. Dose use of urea is often used is about three times of TSP in normal conditions and its use can be used separately or together based on existing conditions in the field.

Organic fertilizer that can be used is in a form of fermented saponin or fermented damaged feed. This fertilizer function is as nutrient supply that is not contained in inorganic fertilizer and required by plankton. Fermentation was conducted in order to saponin / damaged feed in destroyed condition were so easily absorbed by the plankton conducting photosynthesis. In addition to the above objective, a supply of organic material is also intended to balance a composition of inorganic materials that exist on these waters and also to spur growth of zooplankton that can serve as natural feed for shrimp and other organisms. Suplying organic fertilizer is incidental and is based on the observations and the level of water needs and condition of shrimps.

A feed which is given to shrimp in principle can serve as organic fertilizer for pond waters and support to process of establishing stability of plankton in the ponds. This phenomenon can be found and observed in shrimp ponds with dense population and large number of feeding. In this condition the stability of the plankton in the water will be formed by itself without any fertilization, because the elements contained in shrimp feed is also absorbed by the plankton to support its growth in these waters.

Pond waters fertilization methods are closely with water circulation process with a rationale that of pond water volume is very influential on effectiveness of fertilization activities which undertaken. This condition can be interpreted that a use of fertilizer on the same dose levels so its influence and effectiveness will be different if provided in the ponds with different water volumes. Based on this prior, so beforehand fertilization is usually conducted water circulation by reducing the waters volume and add a new water into the pond until the water levels are relatively lower, then just do fertilization.

Fertilization activities should be avoided in waters that experienced a case like this belows:
  1. Water transparency is very low so very high abundance of plankton. In this condition, if fertilization is still being done it will direct the pond waters on plankton booming conditions that could endanger the shrimps, so an anticipation that can be done is to carry out a continuous waters circulatio especially at night with a view to dilution pond waters.

  2. Waters with plankton species dominance that is detrimental to shrimps.

  3. Pond waters have no plankton seeds. Fertilization activities on the waters in this condition will spur the growth of moss in the pond.

  4. Moss-covered pond waters in large numbers. Fertilization is done will only fertilize moss in the pond, so the anticipation can be done is to lift it out moss from pond first and then made an establishment of new water.
Parameters from fertilization result activities commonly used is a changes of waters brightness level and or water discoloration. At sunny weather, a fertilization effect of pond waters can be seen in the afternoon by comparing the brightness and color changes of water before and after fertilization. Water transparency is used as a parameter changes in the abundance of plankton as a result of fertilization, whereas the color change of water used to see changes in the dominance of certain types of plankton in the waters.

At sunny weather, photosynthesis activities which is undertaken by phytoplankton is relatively perfect supported by direct sunlight, which is cause the absorption of the elements contained in fertilizers by phytoplankton was also complete, so a fertilization effects could be observed immediately.



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