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22 July, 2008

Pond Waters Circulation 03 – Methods

Pond waters circulation can be conducted in various methods depending on a level of needs and problems which are faced. Used methods of its in shrimp culture are:

  1. Water circulation with throw and fill patterns, there is pond waters replacement which its conducted by throwing pond waters first until at a certain volume followed by a filling new water into the pond until the desired volume. Water circulation in this methods usually used in cases of: (i) Sea water has lowest tide that support smoothness of process of pond waters throwing and it is not possible to fill a new water from the sea, (ii) Maintain / keep the pond waters quality that had been established with volume of throwing water is not too large and not cause shocks, while the waters filling aims to regenerate plankton; (iii) Growth and formation of new planktons, which pond water volume throwing is relatively large so that pond water levels are relatively low, then made a new water gradually which is continued with fertilization, (iv) Throw away sludge of pond bottom on a regular basis.

  2. Water circulation with fill and throw patterns, there is pond waters replacement which its conducted by filling water into the pond first and then proceed with throwing pond waters until the desired volume. Water circulation in this methods usually used in cases of: (i) Water circulation process at beginning of fries dispersive phase. Pond water levels at this phase relatively low, so that water circulation is conducted just by adding new water into the pond gradually until the desired height, then conducted throwing pond waters process. This method aimed includes to: (a) reduce shrimps discharge that are still extremely small size through water outlet channels, (b) grow natural feed in ponds that are needed by the shrimp fries; (c) control of water transparency and plankton abundance, according to fries / young shrimp needs. (ii) Plankton formation in direction to its stable with an inserted waters volume into pond that is a larger than the discharged pond water, (iii) Supporting to overcome a clogged pond waters outlet channels. The pond waters, which are relatively high have a strong impetus to waters outlet channels so that expected can solve the problem.

  3. Simultaneously water circulation patterns, there is conducted by filling of waters into the pond together with throwing pond waters process until to desired time limit. At this circulation, a high of pond water volume is relatively constant because ratio of incoming water and outgoing water in ponds is relatively same. Water circulation in this method usually used in cases of: (i) Improving collapsed ponds waters quality that did not shake to of pond waters volume in, (ii) Handle pond waters which is has particles. In this condition, waters circulation performed continuously to take the particles out from ponds, and then carried out giving saponins which is aimed to bind particles left in the pond; (iii) The shrimp population within the pond is relatively dense with a high level of feed demand. In this condition, the circulation is carried out aimed at, among others: (a) Maintain a water freshness level required by shrimps with minimizing the time gap between throwing pond waters and filling pond waters, (b) Minimize a time of feed accumulation and metabolism of shrimp at pond bottom; ( c) Pressing the occurrence of the water quality shocks that could endanger for shrimp within ponds with relatively dense population.

  4. Pond water circulation in totally pond water replacement patterns, there is conducted by throwing pond waters to pond bottom then its continue with water filling gradually. Water circulation in this method usually used in cases of: (i) the level of pond water quality is relatively poor and endangering to shrimp life, so that is necessary a really new waters expected to create a comfortable atmosphere for the shrimps, (ii) Shrimp infected to problems caused by poor water conditions, so by reducing the pond waters volume in a large scale is expected to stimulate the shrimps to conduct mass molting, (iii) In order to monitor shrimp population in the ponds directly to provide certainty as a basis for a decision of technically cultivation.
Pond water circulation patterns as one of method to manage water quality in their application depends on the observations and current conditions in the field. The decision making process regarding the circulation of pond waters must refer to the other technical linkage of cultivation as well as considering a causal factor that would cause based on arguments and reasons that can be acceptable scientifically.

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