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30 May, 2010

Recognize To Pond Waters Through Ecosystem Approach 01 – Understanding

As explained in previous discussions, basically shrimp culture within a pond represents an activity which includes both rearing and maintenance of shrimps in a media in the form of plots of pond by providing them with a certain environmental condition which is suitable for the shrimps within a certain time period until the condition of the shrimp is considered financially feasible to utilized.

Referring to the above understanding, then one of the used technologies in shrimp farming is through a balanced aquatic ecosystem approach in a pond which is consistent with the natural environment of shrimp-itself. The basic principle of this approach is if one element of compilers of pond waters ecosystem is disrupted, then there will be an imbalance of these ecosystems an so that will eventually cause problems for shrimp.

The approaches related to pond waters as an ecosystem is an aspect that needs to be understood by the perpetrators of shrimp farming in order to management system which are conducted more directed at how to maintain a balance of these ecosystems that will ultimately lead to the sustainability principles.

In this discussion will put more emphasis on understanding the ecosystem in general and pond waters ecosystem and relationship among the components of compiler which are contain within it.

A. Understanding of Ecosystem

By definition, ecosystems can be interpreted as special circumstances where a community of living organisms and no life organism’s components in an environment that are interact with each other. Ecosystem is one part of ecology, understanding of ecology itself is a science about reciprocal relationship between living organisms and the (conditions of) natural surroundings (environment).

Furthermore ecosystems can be interpreted as an ecological system formed by the inseparable reciprocal relationship among living organisms with their environment. Ecosystems can be in say an order of unity as well as intact and comprehensive between all the environmental elements that influence each other.

Ecosystem is the combination of each bio-system unit which is involving the reciprocal interaction between organisms and the physical environment so that energy flow leads to a certain biotic structures and there is occur a cycle of materials between organisms and non-organisms. The sun as the source of all existing energy.

In an ecosystem, organisms in the community are growing along with the physical environment as a system. Organisms will adapt to the physical environment, otherwise the organism also affects the physical environment for living.

The presence, abundance and distribution of a species in the ecosystem determined by the level of resource availability and chemical factors and physical conditions which must be within the range that can be tolerated by the species.

B. Components to Build An Ecosystem

Referring to the above understanding, accordingly an ecosystem composed by compiler components that interact and affect each other. All these components are in one place and interact to form a unity of regular ecosystems. Compiler components contained in an ecosystem in general are as follows:
  1. Abiotic components, there is the physical and chemical components which is a medium or substrate as space for life, or the environment to live. Most of the abiotic components are vary in space and time.

  2. Autotroph components, which are consists of organisms that can make their own food from inorganic substances with energy support such as sunlight (photoautotroph) and chemicals (chemoautotroph). Autotroph components has role as producer, the components classified on autotroph are the plants which has chlorophyll.

  3. Heterotroph components, which are consists organisms that use organic ingredients provided by other organisms as their food. Heterotroph component also called as macro consumer (fagotroph) because their are consume smaller food.

  4. Decomposer Components, which are decompose an organic materials from dead organisms. Decomposer also called as macro consumers (sapotroph) because their are consume a bigger food. Decomposer organisms are absorbs some of the results of these decomposition and release simple materials that can be reused by the producers. Organisms which classified as decomposer are bacteria and fungi. There is also detritivora there is a decomposing animal that eat remnants of organic material.

    There are three types of decomposition: (i) aerobic; oxygen is an electron / oxidant acceptor, (ii) anaerobic: oxygen is not involved. Organic material as electron / oxidant acceptor, and (iii) Fermentation: anaerobic but also oxidize organic materials as electron acceptor.
C. Mutual Dependence Between Components

Dependences between biotic components can occur through:
  1. Food chain, there is a displacement of matter and energy through the process of eating and eaten with a specific sequence. Each level of the food chain is called as level of trophic. Because the first organisms which capable to produce food substances are plants, then the level of first trophic always occupied by green plants or producers. The next level is second trophic which composed of plant-eating animals which are usually called as primary consumers. The animal that are consume to primary consumer is the third trophic level which are consists of carnivorous animals. Any exchange of energy from one level of trophic to other trophicswill cause some of that energy will be lost.

  2. Food webs, namely food chains that are interconnected with one another in such a way so to form such as webs. Food webs occur because each species of living creatures not only eat one kind of other living creatures.
The basic understanding associated with ecosystems such as the above explanation is knowledge that can be used as a rationale in the management of shrimp farming as technically.

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  2. Pond Water Quality Management - Concept 02
  3. Pond Water Quality Management - 01
  4. Phosphorescency Pond Waters
  5. “Dust” Within Pond Waters
  6. Beware of The Rainy Season
  7. Foamy Pond Waters
  8. The Importance of Water Reservoir
  9. Why Does The Shrimps Convoy ?

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