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23 May, 2008

Shrimp Feeding Program

Basically, a feeding program is a method of shrimp feeding at a single cycle of cultivation. This program also determines a success level of a shrimp culture system as a whole, especially its association with a level of production costs which have been released, so that in arranging is need precision and accuracy in determining the level of shrimp demand to feed.

Several factors must be considered in arranging a feeding program has been described in the foregoing discussion, but in broad outline includes: type of feed, feed size, feed amount and frequency of feeding.

One of used benchmarks in a level of effectiveness and efficiency of feeding programs is the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), which is a ratio between cumulative amount of feed that has been given to the shrimp compared with produced biomass at a certain time. For example: on a plot of ponds, the shrimps have been harvested with biomass 1 (one) tonne, while the total amount of feed that was given to two (two) tonnes, the value of FCR = 2

Standard FCR values that are widely used in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of feeding programs in intensive shrimp culture scale is the range 1.8 - 2.5. By knowing the FCR value can be estimated how much it costs that have been issued for shrimp feed and how the value of selling shrimp at that time. FCR value progress should be monitored on each sampling of population and biomass periodically in a cycle of cultivation. One illustration of the feed program can be seen in Example of Feeding Program. As an effort to more easily understand the illustration above, the following will explain some of the terms contained in the illustrations, which
  1. PL = Post Larvae, this term indicates the age of shrimp that are usually in units of days. This variable is very important because the needs level of shrimp to feed are always changing based on age .

  2. ABW = Average Body Weight, this term indicates the average weight of shrimps in a single plot of a pond at a certain period. This variable obtained through periodic biomass sampling activities.

  3. SR = Survival Rate, this term indicates the level of shrimp life in a single plot of ponds in a certain period compared with stocking density at the dispersive fries time. This variables obtained through periodic population sampling.

  4. Crumble, this term indicates the type of artificial feed-sized powder / fine grain.

  5. Pellets, this term indicates the type of artificial feed grain size with a small, medium and large sizes.

  6. Number of Feed (with a specific encoding), this term indicates the size of shrimp feed grains. Number of feed may vary between manufacturers of feed.
  7. Blind Feeding, this term indicates feeding activity with no attention to feeding program and its implementation depends on availability of and natural feed in ponds, and its usually conducted at the age of shrimp fry. Blind Feeding is also used as an attempt "to introduce" fry on artificial feed and anticipated reduction / ending of natural feed in ponds.
Based on the above illustration, it can be said that a feeding program in one cycle of cultivation is a measured and targeted program with a fixed rate based on the needs and conditions of shrimp at that time.

Measured, mean that every shrimp feeding activities always has a quantity value which has been determined by observation and estimation. Targetted, means that any activity of shrimp feeding has a measure of effectiveness and efficiency there is the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR)

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